Panorama (cylindrical and equiectangular) and 360 video

Written by Paul Bourke

The following contains information around panorams, both cylindrical and spherical (equirectangular).

Please note that I am available as a consultant on all matters relating to material found here.

Omni directional stereoscopic panoramas

Capturing high resolution stereoscopic panorama images

Mathematics for Omni-Direction Stereoscopic Panoramas

Digital omnidirectional stereoscopic camera. The Experimental Imaging Society. July 2020

Omni-Directional Stereoscopic Panoramic Images. UWA.

Synthetic stereoscopic panoramic images. Presented at: VSMM 2006, 18-20 October 2006, Xi'an, China. Published in: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-46304-7, Volume 4270/2006, pp 147-155.

Stereoscopic panoramic images. Computer generation and projection of stereoscopic 3D panoramic images, includes spherical, cylindrical, planar, and cubic stereoscopic maps. See also: 360 degree stereoscopic display

Capture of Omni-Directional Stereoscopic Panoramic Images. Siggraph Asia. Hong Kong 2013.

Two images displayed on EpiCentre cylinder, 26880 pixels x 4320 pixels. OzViz 2018
 - Representing 360x180 degrees on a plane
 - Object panorama and Multiperspective displays

Synthetic stereoscopic panoramic images. Presented at: VSMM 2006, 18-20 October 2006, Xi'an, China. Published in: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-46304-7, Volume 4270, 2006, pp 147-155.

Human beings, who are almost unique in having the ability to learn from the experience of others, are also remarkable for their apparent disinclination to do so. Douglas Adams

360 video

Gallery of 360 video projects

Two dimensional representations of 360x180 degree image or video

Typical pipeline for 360 video processing
Having fun with the Garmin VIRB camera
YouTube 360 video format and how to undo the arrangement to form equirectangular images.

From "101 fun things to do with a 360 video camera".

The Panorama: Applications to Science and Heritage Visualisation. Lawrence Wilson Art Gallery, UWA.
p a n o r a m a. Lawrence Wilson Art Gallery, UWA.
Wollongong Science Centre iDome Exhibit. Interactive installation at the Wollongong Science Centre largely using 360 degree footage from the LadyBug-3 camera.

360 Video. ECU, September 2019
360 Video. ECU, April 2019
360 video. ECU, August 2018
Data capture for VR. June 2017
Introduction to 360 video. March 2017
Reality in VR. Perth, November

Fisheye and spherical capture using the LadyBug camera. Including an exercise to capture footage of iron ore ship loading for a remote operations prototype.

Historical: Conversion of footage from the Lucy camera.

But the fact that some geniuses were laughed at does not imply that all who are laughed at are geniuses. They laughed at Columbus, they laughed at Fulton, they laughed at the Wright Brothers. But they also laughed at Bozo the Clown. Carl Sagan


"Little Planet" photography from the University of Western Australia campus.

Footage captured for the 50 year anniversary at EPFL, Switzerland. April 2019.

Inverse panoramas, also known as object panoramas.
Workflow for creating seamless, tripod artefact free spherical panoramas

Exercise to convert images from a 4 fisheye camera rig to equirectangular.

Chronopanorama, previously known as Time Lapse Panoramas.

Replacing a rooms floor in an equirectangular projection.

Advanced Applications in Stereographic, Panoramic, and Fulldome Visualisation. ISVRI (International Symposium on VR innovation), Singapore. March 2011.

To be sure of hitting the target, shoot first, and call whatever you hit the target. Ashleigh Brilliant.


Cylindrical display in Yagan Square, Perth.

Framing of 360 video for the iDome, Epicylinder and AVIE displays

Image warping for projection onto a cylinder

An interactive tool for evaluating projection options onto cylindrical displays

High resolution omnidirectional stereo panorama imaging and tiled displays

ASKAP exhibition by SPICE. Panoramic and interactive digital exhibits. 2008.


Converting dual fisheye images into a spherical (equirectangular) projection.

Creating unwrapped icosahedral and dodecahredral maps
Equirectangular to perspective projection
Equirectangular to fisheye projection
Equirectangular to cylindrical panorama projection
Converting to/from cubemaps. Including CubeRender (Historical). A technique for fast 3D viewing from a single view position.

Mapping an equirectangular onto another equirectangular, and other projections. Includes Mollweide, Tobler, Aitoff, Hammer, Bottomley, Sinusoidal, Wagner, Werner, Bonne, Eckert IV. Remapping to an equireangular is used, for example, to "level" equirectangular (spherical) images from hand held 360 cameras.

pano_align. A utility and work-flow for aligning film based stereoscopic panoramas.

Creating equirectangular projections using Stellarium.
Creating equirectangular projections using Celestia.
Creating equirectangular projections using GoogleEarth.
Creating equirectangular projection for multipass rendering, eg: Unity3D

Light travels faster than sound. This is why some people appear bright until you hear them speak. Alan Dundes

Contents : Papers, Presentations, Workshops
Geometry, Surfaces, Curves, Polyhedra
Fractals, Chaos, Self similarity
Domes, Planetariums, Fisheye, Spherical Mirror
Stereographics, 3D Projection
Panorama, 360 Video
Photographic Reconstruction
Miscellaneous: Projection, Modelling, Rendering
Data Formats: 3D, Audio, Image
Texture Library, Fun, Puzzles, Travel
All pages in one place
New/Updated : Attractors in 3D for VR viewing
Manual camera calibration for fisheye image projection
Experiments in Reverse Perspective
Tools for Spherical Mirror Projection
Offsite : FaceBook, Sketchfab, YouTube, Vimeo, Shapeways

The contents of this web site are © Copyright Paul Bourke or a third party contributor where indicated. You may print or save an electronic copy of parts of this web site for your own personal use. Permission must be sought for any other use. Any source code found here may be freely used provided credits are given to the author. Purchase of credit free licenses of material found on this site can be negotiated with the author. The author can also quote for unique variations and/or higher resolution versions of the images found on this site.